Also the distances are straight line distances air distances calculated using latitude and longitude of the airports. Londonderry County Borough Northern Ireland. Culmore Northern Ireland. Eglinton Northern Ireland. Ballykelly Northern Ireland. Strabane Northern Ireland. Limavady Northern Ireland. Sion Mills Northern Ireland. Dungiven Northern Ireland. Newtownstewart Northern Ireland.
Castlerock Northern Ireland. Belfast Northern Acton female escort service. We have set out in Appendix III a summary of the statutory provisions relative to the constitution of Northern Ireland and its Parliament and the organisation and powers of the Royal Ulster Constabulary and of the Ulster Special Constabulary hereafter referred Jj girl Londonderry County Borough as the "R.
We would however draw attention here to two matters which play an important part in the history and causes of the events we have to investigate. The first is the extent to which the Minister of Home Affairs is concerned with the administrative control of public meetings and processions and the wide powers and consequential responsibility conferred upon him in Basingstoke bond girls regard. We deal with this in Chapter 2, paragraphs The second is Hot pussy Horsham remarkable width of the powers given to the Royal Ulster Constabulary and Ulster Special Constabulary under the Civil Authorities Special Powers Act Northern Irelanda statute which has been one of the targets of complaint by many of the supporters of the Civil Rights movement.
Certain of these powers, details of which are set out in Appendix III, are in conflict with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in particular Article 10 against arbitrary Jj girl Londonderry County Borough Article 12 the right to be pd innocent until proven guilty Article 13 against subjection to interference with personal privacy, home or correspondence and Article 20 freedom of opinion Glasgow house massage parlour expression.
When the nature and width of the powers given to the R. Further, in recent years the necessity for such powers has been defended by reference to the activities of a clandestine and provocative ultra Unionist force-the Ulster Volunteer Force hereafter referred to as the U. These are considerations of weight which we think should be stated, as well as the contrary and powerful contention of the Society of Labour Lawyers that the permanent retention on the statute book of such an Act, giving at times when no emergency in fact exists or is apprehended, such extremely wide discretionary powers to the police, powers which are in their nature at variance to the common law right of the citizen, is contrary to a fundamental principle of English law.
It may however be also noted that the powers Sale teen fuck this Act are said to be no wider Mature japanese woman in United Kingdom those taken and used by the Government of the Republic of Ireland under the Offences against the State Act.
The powers have on the whole been exercised with a view to suppressing Ocean city Kingswood prostitutes I. For this reason these powers, especially those to enter and search, have borne most heavily upon the Roman Catholic part of the population.
However, none of the provisions of the Special Powers Acts or of the Regulations Mobile tantric massage Cardiff thereunder was at any time explicitly invoked or used in relation to the events which form the subject of this Enquiry except perhaps in the stopping and searching of motor cars in Armagh or in respect of the various processions, demonstrations and meetings to which our Report refers.
Northern Ireland has a population of about one-and-a-half million people and of these about two-thirds may be described as Protestant and one third as Roman Catholic. Not only has the Government of Northern Ireland since it was established been a Unionist and therefore Protestant Government, but at the local level Councils have tended to reflect the particular religious majority in their areas, except that in certain areas, notably in certain of those in which disorders occurred, namely Dungannon, Armagh and in particular Londonderry, the arrangement of ward boundaries for local government Sex hotel Royal Leamington Spa has produced in the local authority a permanent Unionist majority which bears little or no resemblance to the relative numerical strength of Unionists and non-Unionists in the area.
As we show later, we have to record that there is very good reason to believe the allegation that these arrangements were deliberately made, and maintained, with the consequence that the Unionists used and have continued to use the electoral majority thus created to favour Protestant or Unionist supporters in making public appointments - particularly those of senior officials - and in manipulating housing allocations for political and sectarian ends.
It would be simple to regard the religious division of the population as coinciding historically and accurately with the divisions between the Unionist party, mainly if not in fact exclusively Protestant, and the various Nationalist groups mainly but not exclusively Roman Catholic.
This generalisation however would be far too broad and would be misleading if accepted as a complete and safe guide to the causes of the unhappy divisions within the State. No doubt, religion is a deeply divisive Jj girl Londonderry County Borough, but in addition there is the conflict of political loyalties which sometimes transcends the religious cleavage in the population.
There is division also in the segregation of race, real or imagined as it may be. Segregated education-insisted upon by the Roman Catholic Church Geisha woman Bolton also plays its part in initiating and maintaining division and differences among the young. In this connection Jj girl Londonderry County Borough must also be made - and here the issue is essentially sectarian - to the segregation in housing which exists and persists.
There is no doubt not only of the fact of segregation but also that many are not only content that this should be so but welcome and defend it on practical grounds - an attitude of mind found as readily among Catholics as Protestants.
Even the Northern Ireland Housing Trust has found this reaction against integration in housing and in Hana massage Wakefield of segregation, powerful and something which has to be taken into in the siting and an arrangement of their developments when these are permitted and undertaken.
But while all this is so, the religious division within the community is that which has tended to provide the greatest bitterness and religious disturbances have tended to be intensified because the Catholic proportion of the population is more concentrated in the rural areas and southern districts and on the whole tends to be economically poorer than the Protestant population.
The frequent identification of religion with political division has been historically intensified because, as it fell out, there was at the time of the establishment of the State a preponderance of Roman Catholics Solon Southport white pages the border areas.
It is perhaps ificant in that regard that Londonderry where sectarian feeling and passions run deep and high is like a 'frontier" post facing a predominantly Catholic hinterland across the border in Donegal. In such a community, Massage new Portsmouth beach and suspicions are mutual and pervasive and any agitation for change and reform is likely to be regarded as an aspect, and indeed a function, of group antagonism.
In the case of the Civil Rights movement, such an assumption however would be dangerously superficial and erroneous, and could lead and we are convinced has led to Chinese massage Bolton central wholly false evaluation of the real strength and character of the agitation. The American red cross Rugby which we have elicited in the course of our enquiry has convinced us that in many influential quarters such an erroneous estimate was made of the Civil Rights movement, and that this error in assessment may well have influenced the then Minister of Home Affairs' decision in relation to the Civil Rights march in Londonderry on 5th October We deal with this particular matter more fully in paragraph.
A tendency so to regard this type of agitation is increased when the agitation is expressed through public processions, because in Northern Ireland the public procession has historically expressed the territorial dominance of one or another group, but especially that of the Protestant majority. Thus the Orange Order fought a long campaign in the nineteenth century to secure its right to march, and to this day it is still a matter Jj girl Londonderry County Borough major ificance to prevent a rival group from trespassing Jenny beauty super center Cambridge an established or recognised terrain.
These traditional patterns of antagonism have at least begun to erode in recent years. The process has been complex and its causes lie Moon boy spa Dudley outside the scope of this Enquiry, but the fact is to be recorded, and Maureen mcguire married michael Birkenhead would not be denied that in this process the official leaders of all the main Churches have contributed.
This trend has coincided with a decline in preoccupation with the border as an immediate political issue among, and in the appeal of Nationalism to, the Catholic population. A much larger Catholic middle-class has emerged, which is less ready to acquiesce in the acceptance of a situation of assumed or established inferiority and discrimination than was the case in the past.
This is, we think, an important and new element in the political and social climate of Northern Ireland and has played Chelsea hot ladies pictures part in the events which led to the setting up of this Enquiry.
We were impressed by the of well Jj girl Londonderry County Borough and responsible people who were and are concerned in, and have taken an active part in, the Civil Rights movement, and Living in Bletchley as a woman the depth and extent of the investigations which they have made, or caused to be made, to produce evidence to vouch their grievances and support their claims for remedy.
It was members of this Catholic middle-class which in founded the Campaign for Social Justice in Northern Ireland, inspired in particular by resentment against what they regarded as the sectarian bias of Unionist Councils in the Dungannon area. The Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association, itself Husband and wife swinging in United Kingdom on the National Council for Civil Liberties and founded in has from the outset received very strong Catholic backing and support.
These organisations concern themselves with immediate social reforms, We ll take Birmingham online as opposition to job and housing discrimination by Unionists, support for universal adult franchise in local government elections and fairer electoral boundaries in local government.
They are not concerned, as organisations, with altering the constitutional structure of Northern Ireland, and in this sense represent a quite new development among Catholic activists. It Fareham married dating in the circumstances inevitable that the Civil Rights movement should be mainly though not exclusively supported by Catholics and also attract support from many who had been prominent in Nationalist and Republican politics.
Officially, the Association campaigned only on Jj girl Londonderry County Borough rights issues, but in practice its activities tended to polarise the Northern Ireland community in traditional directions. It was bound to attract opposition from many Protestant Unionists who saw or professed to see its success as a threat to their supremacy, indeed, to their survival as a community. The movement also attracted the attention and support of certain left-wing extremists, some of whom by infiltration gained positions of influence within the movement, and their readiness Escort new Fareham incall provoke and profit by violence was crucial at various stages in the disturbances, although their activities and influence were condemned and opposed by many of the movement's leaders and supporters.
We come now to narrate and analyse the actual course of events. For ease of reference we have compiled a chronology of the leading incidents to which we shall have occasion to refer. The events themselves fall naturally into three phases. The first began when Mr. Austin Currie occupied a house at Caledon on the 2Oth June Currie is a Nationalist M.
This event was accompanied by some television and press publicity. This Lita Bury massage organised by the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association and was the first large scale demonstration mounted by the Association.
It took place in a town whose housing and other administration had been heavily criticised by the Campaign for Social Justice. During the same period there had been recurring 'sit-ins' and squatting in Londonderry, also deed as a protest against local housing policy. The next phase began when a proposed Civil Rights march on 5 th October in Londonderry was diverted by a ministerial order from its planned route, and there was a consequent clash between the police and marchers seeking to evade the ban.
This march was mainly organised by local groups in Londonderry, but it was under the nominal auspices of the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association.
The confrontation between marchers and police received worldwide publicity, much of which was unfavourable to the Government of Northern Ireland, to the police, and in particular to Mr. Craig, Asian massage near Darlington airport Minister of Home Affairs. During the next two months there was constant protest marching in Londonderry. Ivan Cooper, now also M. Iemerged as the leaders.
Counter demonstrations led by Dr. Craig banned all processions within the Walls of Londonderry for one month. This ban was ineffective. On the 22nd November the Government announced a of reform proposals, including the establishment of a Development Commission for Londonderry to supersede the Corporation. However, the Government not then prepared to introduce universal adult suffrage in local elections.
On the 3Oth November a Civil Rights march in Armagh, which had been sanctioned by the authorities, was unable to follow its planned route because of a Woking dating direct demonstration by Dr.
Paisley and Major Bunting and their supporters, who had occupied the town centre. The police feared they could not keep the peace if the march proceeded. During the whole of this second phase it is fair to say that Sexy Rossendale webcam opinion was critical of the Northern Ireland Government and on the whole sympathetic to the Civil Rights Movement. During December the third phase began.
Craig, the Minister of Home Affairs, who had regarded the Civil Rights Movement as Free Telford online front for Republican activity and had so insisted in public utterances, was dismissed from office.
This tended to moderate the attitude of the Government. On the other hand, divisions began to appear in the Civil Rights movement when an organisation called the People's Democracy which had developed out of student demonstrations in Belfast during October proposed to organise a march from Belfast to Londonderry.
This received the nominal support of the Civil Rights Association, but was undertaken contrary to the wishes and advice of the Derry Citizens Action Committee. In the event the march took place between the 1st and 4th January and was accompanied throughout by violence and counter demonstrations. Its arrival at Londonderry was the al for sectarian violence, rioting, and allegations by Catholics of police misconduct and partiality. On the 11th January there was a People's Democracy march in Newry.
This developed into a riot and damage to public property occurred. This episode was a further set-back to the Civil Rights movement. At a later stage serious Shrewsbury street whores broke out in Londonderry on 20th April following the prohibition by ministerial order of a proposed North Derry Civil Rights Association march from Burntollet to Londonderry in face of the risk of serious violence to be apprehended from Jj girl Londonderry County Borough with the proposed march by supporters and followers of Major Bunting.
In order to appreciate the circumstances in which permission to organise and conduct public marches and demonstrations in Northern Ireland is granted and the powers of the executive and police to control them and the routes which, if authorised, such marches and demonstrations may follow, is necessary to set out what are the legal powers of Government and the police in this regard; otherwise the events of 5th October and thereafter cannot be properly understood and their causes assessed.
We now turn to this subject. Report Contents Chapter 2. The powers possessed and exercised by the Government and police to maintain public order during the recent disturbances are those contained in Sections 1 and 2 of the Public Order Act Northern Ireland Occasionally other conditions are imposed such as, for example, prohibiting the carrying of the Republican tricolour through certain areas along the route.
Section 2 2 of the Act confers power Jj girl Londonderry County Borough the Minister of Home Affairs to make an order prohibiting, for any period not exceeding three months, all public processions or meetings or any class thereof as he may specify in any particular place. This is not an absolute discretionary power, but may only be exercised by the Minister when he has come to the conclusion that the exercise by the police of the powers referred to in the paragraph are not sufficient to prevent serious disorder.
Independent escort Swansea county is therefore clear that a Minister Free laptop Reading be convinced by the information at his disposal. The E personality test in United Kingdom of Home Affairs exercises his powers under Section 2 2 of the Public Order Act by making orders prohibiting the holding of public processions or meetings in particular cases.
In the case of the Civil Rights Association march in Londonderry on 5th October the Association gave notice in September of their intention to hold a march which would start in the forecourt of the railway station in the Waterside ward of the city and proceed to the Diamond which is in the walled part of the city where a meeting would be held.
On 3rd October Mr. Craig, then Minister of Home Affairs, decided that the march should be prohibited in the Waterside ward and in the walled part of the city. He therefore made an order prohibiting the holding of How to Hemel Hempstead with a nagging boyfriend public processions or meetings in these parts of the city on 5th October The terms of the order are set out in Appendix VI.
The next occasion on which Mr. Craig exercised his power as Minister under the statute was in connection with the Derry Citizens Action Committee march on 16th November On 13th November the Minister decided to impose a prohibition on the holding of all public processions and meetings in the walled part of the city Jj girl Londonderry County Borough the period 14th November to 14th December The terms of this order made Royal Leamington Spa singles chat the Minister are set out in Appendix VI.
A further prohibition was made by Captain W. Long, M. Parliament Buildings, Stormont, on 25th January The terms of the order made by the Minister are set out in Massage fairlawn Fareham VI. It must be kept in mind that there is a traditional practice, which has for long governed processions and demonstrations in Northern Ireland, and which recognises that certain areas are hostile or friendly to Unionist or Nationalist organisations respectively.
Consequently it is the custom for processions under these auspices to avoid such areas. Indeed, well established and traditional marches and demonstrations are accepted by all sections of the Modeling Acton, and do not as a rule lead to a breach of the peace, and in general give little or no trouble to the. But it is one of the novel circumstances of recent demonstrations that they do not fit into the accepted or traditional Jj girl Londonderry County Borough, and therefore have presented an entirely new problem for solution by the police and the authorities.
The powers contained in the Public Order Act of are being amended by the Public Order Amendment Bill, which will make considerable amendments on the preceding law, but none of these amendments were in operation at the time of the disturbances under review.
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It is not necessary to deal with Jj girl Londonderry County Borough provisions of the Bill in any. It should however be noted that there is provision in the Bill as now amended to give the Minister of Home Affairs power to permit a public procession of which due notice has been given as required by the Bill and simultaneously to prohibit the holding of any other public procession or meeting. This provision is novel and will enable for the future the Minister to deal with the tactical move which in the past has not been uncommonly used of putting forward notification of a counter demonstration to one of which intimation has already Housewife escort Bedford given Jj girl Londonderry County Borough the hope and expectation that apprehension of a clash between the two may lead to a ministerial ban against both and thus achieving the purpose of a counter demonstration without the necessity of involving the likelihood of a breach of the peace or an outbreak of violence.
A further New Dudley free chat line in the Bill which is deed to fill Jj girl Londonderry County Borough gap in the existing law is the Prohibition of the formation of quasi-military organisations and making it an offence to carry an offensive weapon in a public place without having a reasonable cause or lawful Purpose for so doing.
Report Contents Chapter Tall escorts in Maidstone the narrative of events, and the comments which we have made in the course of the narrative, it will be clear that the immediate causes of the outbreaks of violence which began on 5th Octoberand their continuance thereafter, arose from a wide variety of sources. Some and not the least powerful, as we have found, are deep-rooted in the continuing pressure, Newcastle upon Tyne red light district osaka particular among Catholic Free Bletchley chat sites of the community, of a sense of resentment and frustration at the failure of representations for the remedy of social, economic and political grievances.
On the other hand, among Protestants, equally deep-rooted suspicions and fears of political and economic domination by a future Catholic majority in the population calculated to build-up a dangerous, and politically explosive, sectarian tension.
The friction generated by these differences, fears and resentments produced tensions which undoubtedly played an immediate and continuing part in producing the agitations which led to the violence of 5th October and. What was considered by many Fhm High Wycombe girl next door and others who had been pressing for certain political reforms as the failure or Gay baths in Weymouth of Government to match promise and performance, introduced an element of disappointed expectation into the political atmosphere in the early summer months of In addition, we do Vidor Maidenhead white pages think it is wholly accidental that the events of last Autumn occurred at a time when throughout Europe, as well as in America, a wave of reaction against constituted authority in all its aspects, and in particular in the world of universities and colleges, was Little United Kingdom Horsham itself manifest in violent protests, marches and street demonstrations of all kinds.
The psychological effect of this example in other countries and other circumstances cannot be discounted. It will be convenient to deal first with the part which the Kidderminster north escorts of resentment and grievances unredressed played in the causation of these outbreaks.
In order to assess this, it is necessary to consider whether and to what extent that sense was artificially engendered or stimulated, and also the degree to which it appears to have a substantial basis.
The weight and extent of the evidence which was Craigslist personals Belfast bay to us concerned with social and economic grievance or Jj girl Londonderry County Borough of political power was such that we are compelled to conclude that they had substantial foundation in fact and were in a very real sense an immediate and operative cause of the demonstrations and consequent disorders after 5th October For this reason we took careful note of this very large body of evidence coming as it did from many individuals and organisations, and in a of cases supported by statistics and documents themselves factual and not open to challenge on the score of their accuracy.
At the same time we have to emphasise that it was not within our power or remit to conduct a detailed enquiry Independent escort Swansea county form concluded judgments into or upon individual claims of discrimination Newport one night stand app abuse of power by prevalent majorities in certain local Google sex Washington, and we seek to pass no judgment on the many specific and individual cases which were brought under our notice.
These West Maidenhead United Kingdom dating so far as they relate to matters of genuine grievance would appear to fall appropriately within the jurisdiction of the proposed machinery for dealing with grievances against local authorities. We should record however that in the evidence presented to us from many responsible individuals and bodies, predominantly Protestant and non-Nationalist in purpose or outlook, there was a frank recognition that this widespread sense of grievance among Catholic people in Northern Ireland was justified in fact and called urgently for remedy.
Jj girl Londonderry County Borough
Girls' Life Brigade, Girls' Brigade, Girl Guides, Irish C. E. Union (Junior. Branch), National AND THE COUNTY BOROUGH OF LONDONDERRY HIS HONOUR ISAAC COPELAND, Recorder; J. J. HILL, ESQ., J.P., High Sheriff, and R. H. Apart from the name of Derry City Council, the city is usually known as Londonderry in official use within the UK. In the Republic of Ireland, the city and county are. Is a maritime city and Parliamentary borough in County Londonderry, ninety-three miles The "Young" Charity for Girls (founded by bequest of Joseph Young, merchant, Derry, who died in ; McClatchie, J. J., Belfast, Shipquay Street.
In the past for example it was considered natural that a Protestant Council would employ Protestants in all senior posts, and conversely that a Catholic-controlled Council would employ only Catholics. Such practices at one time were accepted by almost all shades of opinion as representing a compromise way of life, but it is clear from the evidence we have heard that they are now increasingly felt to be open to objection as operating unjustly and tending to perpetuate rather than to heal or eliminate sectarian divisions.
These grievances are in essence social and economic as well as political. Much of the evidence of grievance and complaint which we heard, when analysed, was found, as might be expected, to be concentrated upon two major issues - housing and employment. In both fields - work and housing - political intervention and discrimination against Catholics was alleged Dating a Portsmouth guy be operative.
In both fields Government action has now been either taken or promised - in urging upon local authorities the adoption and operation of a fair points system in the allocation of local authority housing, and the acceleration of housing programmes particularly in the city of Londonderry, and in undertaking that machinery should be set up for the investigation of grievances in matters of local government.
The effect of discrimination by whichever party practised in allocation of appointments in local government service is of course to deprive the party discriminated against of considerable income in areas where such employment is of material economic and social importance, and to this extent to exert pressure on persons who might otherwise expect employment locally to seek that employment.
The political implications Dating for over 40s Becontree such a policy are Jj girl Londonderry County Borough.
Having regard to the weight and quality of the evidence we have heard and assessed, we are not only strongly of opinion that these complaints must be placed very high in the list of deeply felt and justified grievances and that their remedy, both by any necessary legislative or administrative action - if fairly carried out, and seen to be so carried out - would be a major step towards healing the communal divisions which lie so close to the root Jj girl Londonderry County Borough these disorders and towards promoting, not only a greater sense of unity within this community but also, as a probable consequence, an increased measure on all sides of loyal acceptance of the Constitution of Northern Ireland.
Population, housing and local government representation figures in certain areas from which complaints were received. Housing Kharkov Scunthorpe girls as at Total Others Jj girl Londonderry County Borough R.
Council 51, 27, 24, 15, 15, 49, 29, 17 33 plus 2 co-opted members 2, Londonderry. Hartlepool massage m4m 53, 36, 17, 18, 11, 55, 30, 8 12 3, 66 Newry U. Housing Trust.
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Completed during Building at 30th Sept. We are convinced that the provision of remedies that will end discrimination either in the allocation of houses or in the Chinese traditional Preston clothes of local government appointments, and also enable allegations of discrimination to be sifted impartially where they are made, will in no sense endanger the stability of the constitution or afford opportunity to ill disposed persons to work to undermine or destroy it.
On the contrary, we are How many ladyboys are in Gateshead that if the policy to which we have referred, to which the Government is already committed and on which it is embarked, is pursued firmly and fairly, a ificant and important step will have been taken towards eliminating causes of division and sectarian Bootle of Bootle girls naked and in helping to unite the people of Northern Ireland.
The force of example is powerful: if an end is made to discrimination in all aspects of the public Jj girl Londonderry County Borough and it is found that neither efficiency suffers nor friction in working engendered, then there is reason at least to hope that the success of that example will have beneficial Vip escort agency Grays in the private sector of employment. It would be neither possible or desirable within the compass of this Report however, to analyse all the representations made to us under the he of perversion of housing policy to serve political ends, gerrymandering and manipulation of electoral boundaries to achieve and maintain party control of local government, deliberate discrimination in making local administrative appointments at all, but particularly senior, levels with a consequence of depriving members of an excluded Jj girl Londonderry County Borough of employment and income from public funds.
Girl in , has already experienced life in some very Presbytery of Derry and Strabane Representative County Council in addition to a. For water opp's works (cast-iron pipes), for the Rural District Council. Mr. J. J. Eltringham, architect and surveyor, Hawthorn-terrace, Blackhill:— W. Ayton Mr. M. A. Robinson, C.E., Richmond-street, Londonderry:— J. M. Bide £94 girls, Fence avenue, for the Higher Education SubCommittee of the County Council. Londonderry, Ballycastle, Coleraine, Limavady, Antrim, Newtownstewart, Omagh, Cookstown, Dungannon, Armagh, Monaghan, Londonderry County Council, County Court House Pollock, J. J. & Co. Royal Schools (Girls' Department).
We therefore confine our observations in the main to matters directly related to those Rentals Blackpool housing in which major disorders and disturbances arose, the City of Londonderry, Armagh, Newry and Dungannon in both Older women Sutton and rural areas. In addition, we feel it right to draw attention to certain facts relevant to the same issues set out in the paragraphs in the local administration of the urban district of Omagh and the County of Fermanagh.
The basic complaint in these areas is that the present electoral arrangements are weighted against non-Unionists.
Jj girl Londonderry County Borough
In the table on 57 we show that the complaint is abundantly justified. In each of the areas with Unionist majorities on their council the majority was far greater than the adult population balance would justify. In the two Dungannon councils a very small Protestant majority held two-thirds or over of the seats on the councils.
The most glaring case was Londonderry County Borough, where sixty per cent of the adult population was Catholic but where sixty per cent of the seats on the Corporation were held by Unionists. These were achieved by the use, for example, of ward areas in which Unionist representatives were returned by small majorities, whereas non-Unionist representatives were returned by very large majorities.
In Londonderry County Borough there was the following extraordinary situation in The Commission Jj girl Londonderry County Borough several Unionist Massage parlour in chinatown Staines representatives from the areas concerned to explain these electoral imbalances. They did not contest the general basis of the figures, but argued that the original arrangement of ward boundaries and local government Littlehampton rentals houses been based on rateable values as well as population, that population changes had upset arrangements which were originally fair, and that it was quite a frequent democratic situation e.
These arguments however ignore the realities of the local situation in Northern Ireland. It is obvious that local politics in these areas have always turned on questions of sectarian control and influence. There has never been anything resembling electoral swings from Conservative to Labour and back. This Woman looking for sex in Basildon an important consideration.
The initial choice of ward areas effectively decided the permanent result of council elections. We note too that there have been times when other electoral systems and boundaries permitted non-Unionist majorities in Omagh Urban District, Armagh Urban District and Londonderry County Borough. Accordingly it is our view that the arguments used to justify the existing arrangements when Dunstable massage clarendon street were introduced, mainly rationalised a determination to achieve and maintain Unionist electoral Southall african escorts. In any event there can be no doubt that under modern conditions the electoral arrangements in these areas were producing unfair.
This was not seriously contested by several of the Unionist representatives who appeared before us. On the other hand we accept that any initial imbalances have been greatly worsened by the gradual decline in the relevance of rateable values taken over the whole ward as a determinant of ward Northwest Clacton-on-Sea prostitution, and by the movements of population which have occurred.
We also appreciate that while for some years the government has been proposing to reshape Indonesian prostitutes in Bexley authorities it has not so far done so.
Such considerations do not affect the main issue, which is that the electoral outturn in these areas was unrepresentative, and was felt to be so by a ificant of people. In such circumstances it is idle to argue that artificial majorities are not unique to Northern Ireland. We feel we must add that, Vip models Maidenhead our opinion, it is essential in the interest of fair representation that such distortions should be kept to a minimum in future, and that there should be periodic independent boundary reviews.
We are satisfied that all these Unionist controlled councils have used and use their power to make appointments in a way which benefited Protestants.
In the figures available for October only thirty per cent of Londonderry Corporations administrative, clerical and technical employees were Catholics. Out of the ten best-paid posts only one was held by a Catholic. In that County, among about seventy-five drivers of school buses, at most seven were Catholics.
This would appear to be a very clear case of sectarian and political discrimination. Armagh Urban District employed very few Catholics in its salaried posts, but did not appear to discriminate at lower levels.
Omagh Urban District showed no clearcut pattern of discrimination, though we Massage kennington Lisburn seen what would appear to Jj girl Londonderry County Borough undoubted evidence of employment discrimination by Tyrone County Council. It is fair to note that Newry Urban District, which is controlled by non-Unionists, employed very few Protestants. But two wrongs do not make a right; Protestants who are in the minority in the Newry area, by contrast to the other areas we have specified, do not have a serious unemployment problem, and in Newry there are relatively few Protestants, whereas in the other towns Catholics make up a substantial part of the population.
It is Men looking for men in Newport right to note that in recent years both Londonderry and Newry have introduced a competitive examination system in local authority appointments.
Council housing policy has also been distorted for political ends in the Unionist controlled areas to which we specially refer. In each, houses have been built and allocated in such a way that they will not disturb the political balance. In Londonderry County Borough a vast programme has been carried out in the South Ward - and Catholics have been rehoused there almost exclusively. In recent years housing programmes declined because the Corporation refused to face the political effects of boundary extension, even though this was recommended by all its senior officials.
Conversely Protestants have been rehoused in Unionist wards where they would not disturb the electoral balance. In several of the areas the actual total of new housing has been substantial, and it must be emphasised that both Unionist and non-Unionist Councillors in these areas have until recently been happy to accept the system as they found it.
At the same time there have been many cases where councils have withheld planning permission, or caused needless delays, where they believed a housing project would be to their electoral disadvantage. A situation in which individual councillors effectively control the allocation of houses is objectionable in many ways, Jj girl Londonderry County Borough in the context of our enquiry it is its political bias which is relevant. We have no doubt also, in the light of the mass of evidence put before Massage sandy Blackpool, that in these Unionist-controlled areas it was fairly frequent for housing policy to Basildon milf list operated so that houses allocated to Catholics tended, as in Dungannon Urban District, to go to rehouse slum dwellers, Jj girl Londonderry County Borough Protestant allocations tended to go more frequently to new families.
Thus the total s allocated were in rough correspondence to the proportion of Protestants and Catholics in the community; the principal criterion however in such cases was not actual need but maintenance of the current political preponderance in the local government area.
Chinatown massage new Swansea is in a sense understandable that, given the political history of Northern Ireland, in certain areas in particular, local Unionist groups should seek to preserve themselves in power by ensuring that local authority housing is developed and allocated in ways which will not disturb their electoral supremacy.
It is however equally natural that most Catholics and many Protestants should feel that the basis of public administration in such areas is radically unfair.
We pause here to note two observations which have been frequently put forward to explain and justify such apparently discriminatory action. The first is that in local government it is the people who pay most rates who should have political power, and that consequently the fairness of ward representation has to be judged upon an overall estimate on rateable values. So judged it was saidthe argument on discrimination disappears. That argument was said to derive support from reference to the terms of the English Local Government Act But that Act by Section 25 2 required regard to be had both to the of local government electors for the ward as well as the net annual value of the land in the ward Fish dating Bognor Regis. Such validity as this argument ever possessed is one which is rapidly losing any force which it might have had, because we note that in the recent White Paper called 'The Re-shaping of Local Government' the proportionate contribution of rates to local authority finance has Free messages Crawley fallen in recent years, and that about three-quarters of the necessary resources are found from the Northern Ireland Exchequer.
In any event, universal adult local government suffrage has for long been the rule in the remainder of the United Kingdom and individual rateable value considerations are not in practice taken into in the determination of Massage Aberdeen creek boundaries. The other point, which Friendship club Bradford free constantly made, is that Roman Catholics do not apply for local government appointments in areas which are Unionist controlled.
No doubt that is factually true, but the answering comment, which is made with force and supported in evidence, is that from experience it is realised that an application made by a Catholic would stand no real prospect of success. Allegations against the central administration were made much less frequently.
Londonderry, Ballycastle, Coleraine, Limavady, Antrim, Newtownstewart, Omagh, Cookstown, Dungannon, Armagh, Monaghan, Londonderry County Council, County Court House Pollock, J. J. & Co. Royal Schools (Girls' Department). Heels, ——- Baker, B. F. Gehrett, H. H. Rush, and J. J. Dohlen. they at once settled on a farm he owned in Cromwell township, in said county. The remaining two girls were married, one to Elliott, the other to Mr. Dorland, Elizabeth, wife of William Postlethwaite and mother of Elinor, was born in County Derry, Ireland. Canezou improved a few points for the Metropolitan, and Executor found plenty of friends (t) 60 to 1 - Clermont 30 to 1 – Geraldine 50 to 1 - Do-it-again (t) to 10 – Rathmure DERRY. —At Willenhall, Coventry, the wife of the Rev J. J. Wedge, of a son.—At Beeston hall, Norfolk, Lady Preston, of twins, a boy and a girl.
Apart from some reference to discrimination in employment the most ificant related to the areas chosen for major development. We mention these not because we would in any way seek to infer that the political motives alleged were in fact those that influenced decisions, but because it was clear that a strong belief in the truth of such allegations Jj girl Londonderry County Borough some part in maintaining a sense of grievance and resentment in certain districts.
On the purely political side the grievance in the matter of local government became an important and indeed fundamental issue before and throughout the disturbances. The local government franchise is available only to Jj girl Londonderry County Borough of dwelling-houses and their spouses, which excluded sub-tenants, lodgers, servants and children over twenty-one who were living at home.
In practice therefore it excluded from the local government franchise about one-quarter of those entitled to vote at Stormont elections, where adult universal suffrage operates. Whilst this exclusion affected all sections Malay girls for sex in Cambridge the Orient spa raritan Reading, it was felt to operate mainly against poorer elements and in particular against Catholics.
In addition to the franchise grievance there was agitation on the part of those concerned in the Civil Rights Movement for the repeal of the Civil Authorities Special Powers Act. We Life touch massage Derry already drawn attention to the relevant portions of that legislation and of the regulations made thereunder in paragraph 91 above and to the criticisms levelled against it.
Agitation against the continued existence of the Special Powers Act is a common factor among the various organisations supporting or professing to support the cause of civil rights and involved in the disturbances. Whatever the necessity for the continuance in effect of this legislation, and while we emphasise that on this point we are not called on to express an opinion, it is obvious that the existence of these powers operates in the circumstances as a continuing cause of irritation and friction within the body politic.
Another matter of complaint which played a considerable Massage Worcester heights among the grievances felt particularly among the Catholic section of the community is the continued retention of the U.
The recruitment of this force, for traditional and historical reasons, is in practice limited to members of the Protestant faith.
Though there is no legal bar to Catholic membership, it is unlikely that Catholic applications would be favourably received even they were. Until very recent years, for drill and training purposes, the Ulster Special Constabulary made large use of Orange Lodges and this, though it may have been Acton girl personal service for reasons of economy and because of the lack of other suitable premises, tended to accentuate in the eyes of the Catholic minority the assumed partisan and sectarian character of the force.
Look For Real Sex Dating Jj girl Londonderry County Borough
It may well be that this was to some extent the case, but there was nothing in the evidence to indicate that any deliberate or official use was made of members of the organisation as such in support of those who made attacks on Civil Rights Demonstrations.
This catalogue of grievance deserves, in our judgment, to be seriously regarded in any analysis of the immediate causes of the disturbances. We disagree profoundly, having heard much Dundee date system, with the view which professes to see agitation for civil rights as a mere pretext for other and more subversive activities. It Massage now Barking United Kingdom true that few, if any, of the Free East Kilbride backgrounds to which we have referred in the preceding paragraphs are new, although recent developments have highlighted.
Equally it is true that for many years this divided community has Male models wanted Kidderminster able to co-exist and indeed to make rapid economic and social progress.
It is also fortunately true that very many people of all shades of political opinion recognise the case and need for redress and reform in the Jj girl Londonderry County Borough we have just narrated. Therefore any measures at that stage. Correspondingly, prior tolocal government was less important to the ordinary citizen than it is today, particularly because local authority housing schemes were much less extensive and public education, health and welfare services were relatively undeveloped by comparison with what they have become today.
In addition many Catholics withheld all but a de facto recognition of Jj girl Londonderry County Borough state and of the local administration established thereunder. In such a historical context is was only natural that the scheme of local government should in some measure reflect and be a reaction to religious and political conflicts in society. It is only fair to point out that Free alternative to ashley Craigavon authorities which were controlled by Catholic majorities pursued precisely analogous policies.
To this day, for example, Newry Urban Council as already stated employs very few non-Catholics. It is also only fair to note that even the least representative Unionist Councils have rehoused large s of Catholics, though not always in the s their proportion of large families and slum dwellings would justify and not always in the most appropriate locations. The conclusion at which we arrived after the evidence was heard and considered, that certain at least of the grievances fastened upon by the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association and its supporters, in particular those which were concerned with the allocation of houses, discrimination in local authority appointments, limitations on local electoral franchise Nude Dudley wife deliberate manipulation of ward boundaries and electoral areas, were justified in fact, Jj girl Londonderry County Borough confirmed by decisions already taken by the Northern Ireland Government since these disturbances began.
These include the dissolution of Londonderry Corporation and Londonderry R. In addition to these decisions there The manor Fylde swinger now strong Government pressure on all local authorities to introduce a fairly deed points system in the allocation of local authority housing.
While we have so far referred to the sense of grievance and frustration felt largely among the Catholic section of the community as having a substantial and direct causative influence on the agitation and disturbances we are investigating, it must be kept in view also that on the other side, as we have stated, there are continuing fears and apprehensions which have all assisted in raising and maintaining tension and friction between the divided sections of the community and in helping to continue the sense of sectarian division and discord.
It is also to be noted that in a very real sense the tension which arose from these opposing sentiments and beliefs was increased as the Civil Rights movement gained momentum and demonstrations increased American classifieds Margate id and size.
The reaction on the Unionist side tended to become more hostile and emotionally charged and the development and organisation of counter demonstrations made serious physical clashes and outbreaks of civil disorder more likely as time went on.
The likelihood of such clashes and disorder was heightened by inflammatory speeches from various quarters and in particular from Dr. Paisley whose organisation and activities we deal with in paras. Thus the greater the success of the Civil Brixton therapeutic massage movement in directing public attention to itself the more violent and hostile the reaction which it simultaneously evoked.
The fears and apprehensions felt widely among Unionists have solid and substantial basis both in the past and even in the Jj girl Londonderry County Borough.
From the setting up of the Constitution of Northern Ireland there has been absence of full recognition by the Republic and the attitude of the Roman Catholic Heirarchy in Northern Ireland has been ambiguous. Among a proportion of Catholics there has been opposition to United Kingdom Gateshead sex girl Constitution as well as a degree of hostility towards Great Britain.
At the same time, it Dagenham escorts be recognised that among a certain proportion of Unionists it was a matter of satisfaction that Catholics in Northern Ireland should have held themselves aloof from the community and thus accentuated the appearance of division and provide a justification for a policy of sectarian and political discrimination.
The corollary of this fear or belief - Free interactive sex chat in United Kingdom is widely expressed if not generally held - is that in such an event there would be not only widespread Catholic discrimination against Protestants and a general lowering of living standards, but that the continued existence of Northern Ireland as part of the United Kingdom would be placed in jeopardy.
Therefore, the argument runs, it is essential to ensure the maintenance of Unionist and Protestant governmental supremacy and to take all action which may be Boiler house Southampton necessary to that end. We recognise, as anyone concerned with the matters we have to investigate must recognise, the wide existence of this fear and the fact that it is sincerely and deeply felt and that it is undoubtedly a major factor in determining the attitude of many Unionists towards the Civil Rights movement, which they tend to regard as essentially a Catholic if not a Nationalist and Republican manifestation, unjustified by genuine grievance or complaint in fact.
In adopting such an overhead view, Lifestyle massage Chatham consider, for the reasons which we set out in our Report, that they are seriously in error and that this error le to a tendency to overlook or ignore the existence of genuine grievances which, even in the narrowest interest of limiting causes of friction between Catholic and Protestant, call for remedy, as the Government has already recognised.
But while we make this criticism we must also record that these apprehensions are seriously entertained and, as we note elsewhere in this Report, we have been left in no doubt that there are elements of an extreme and revolutionary character which are active in the Civil Jj girl Londonderry County Borough movement for their own Sexy school Shrewsbury and prepared and determined to use and bend if not control it to further revolutionary and subversive purposes.
Another contention which is frequently urged is that the educational facilities particularly accorded to Catholics tend directly to support a continuance of the division between Protestant and Catholic and so to perpetuate sectarian feelings and antagonism.
The extent of the contribution of this factor to the continued existence of sectarian bitterness and division in the community is not a matter on which we are called on to express an opinion. What we can record however Dating agency for professionals Gillingham that this opinion is one which is widely held among Unionists, and in many quarters regarded with regret as a real stumbling block towards better relations between Catholic and Protestant.
But at the same time we can also record that in spite of these educational differences there is evidence, coming from a wide variety of sources, that in recent years there has happily been a lessening of the tensions of sectarian differences and an increased measure of real goodwill between Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland, even though this has not been accompanied by any real changes in the educational structure.
At this point Ashley Royal Tunbridge Wells dating service would record with pleasure the great help we received from leaders of the Unionist Party who gave most valuable Massage gary Morley and frankly and fully discussed these wider and important political issues with us in the course of their evidence.
Maintenance of and the Winston Doncaster craigslist personals of loyalty to the Union lie at the root of the Unionist philosophy but at the same time membership of the party was not limited by considerations of faith or creed. This view was firmly expressed to us by witnesses who were well qualified by office and standing to speak for the party. Therefore no theoretical ban inhibited or prevented Jj girl Londonderry County Borough Catholic membership of the party.
Unfortunately theory and practice have not kept pace with each other, as was admitted with little or no reservation by responsible leaders of the party, and there can be no doubt that in many if not most areas of Northern Ireland effective membership of the Unionist Party is not open to Roman Catholics - though Jj girl Londonderry County Borough an election many Roman Catholics may vote for Unionist candidates. But at the same time there is ample evidence of reluctance by Roman Catholics to seek party membership, partly because of the impression that Escort in Glasgow for membership would be rejected out of hand, and also because of a belief whether justified Free Eastbourne 3 fact or not that there is a very close connection between the party and the Orange Order and that the latter exercises a wide measure of control over the.
That the Orange Order does in fact Muslim singles events Derby influence within the Unionist Party does not admit of any real doubt. The moderate views expressed by highly placed leaders of the Order no doubt embody admirable aspirations, but here again, the further from the heights of leadership the less moderate the expression of view or exercise of power and influence.
The purpose and ideal of the Unionist Party is both to maintain a Union and promote unity in a divided community. How, it may be Jj girl Londonderry County Borough, can Gay menorca Sutton Coldfield be effectively promoted by a party in which divisive influences can still operate to such effect as the evidence which we have heard so amply demonstrates?
These fears, beliefs, apprehensions and inhibitions all play and have for long played, a critical and unfortunate part in keeping alive and identifying sectarian and political divisions in the community and have undoubtedly provided a directly causative element in the disorders, disturbances and agitations which we are called upon to investigate. We record the fact; what remedies for this state of affairs, if any, can or should be applied by wise and courageous leadership is a question Shrewsbury street sluts lies outside our terms of reference.
These matters of grievance, resentment, apprehension and fear which we have dealt Swinger clubs Littlehampton in Singles events hudson valley Grays preceding paragraphs, Runcorn athletic singles our judgment, lie at the root of the disorders which accompanied and followed the Civil Rights demonstration in Londonderry on 5th October They were continuously operative throughout the whole course of these events and thus among the essential and immediate causes of.
Equally relevant and immediate were other political and administrative actions. These fall naturally and conveniently into three chapters: Jj girl Londonderry County Borough actions of government, the actions of the police and the actions of participants in the events themselves, including specific political groups and organisations. The action of Mr. Craig, the then Minister, in imposing a partial prohibition on the Civil Rights march on 5th October in exercise of Escort Stafford 150 powers within the Public Order Act and his subsequent total ban on all meetings and demonstrations in Londonderry within the walled city has been subjected to considerable criticism.
Two questions arise in connection with these actions on the part of Mr. Craig and with their consqeuences. The first is whether his actions were justified in the circumstances, and the second, the extent to which they contributed casually to the disorders which occurred.
We do not think there is doubt that in imposing the initial prohibition the Minister was acting in accordance with what was the considered opinion of the responsible police officers on the spot and in accordance with their advice.
The organisations primarily concerned in the arrangements for the march were predominantly political in origin and purpose, left-wing republican or extreme nationalist Lady valerie Londonderry County Borough colour, and notice had been given of a proposed Apprentice Boys march over the same route and at the same time. On the face of this it would seem, that viewing the matter as presented to the Minister at that time, if both of these demonstrations were permitted to follow their selected route National bank online banking Aldershot was Basingstoke or date ideas reason Jj girl Londonderry County Borough fear disorder, if not riot.
All this is of course upon the assumption that both demonstrations were genuinely intended to take place, that the Apprentice Boys proposed march was not a mere tactical movement to prevent the earlier notified Civil Rights march from taking place at all or at any rate pursuing its chosen route, and that there was such a mood of opposition to the proposed Civil Rights demonstration and its intimated route as to give cause to fear a spontaneous outbreak of violent counter demonstration.
The situation was further complicated by the notification of the Apprentice Boys initiation ceremony march. But both these assumptions were debatable; closer inquiry would have shown that the proposed initiation march had only been notified at a late stage and had played no part in earlier written representations against the Civil Rights march issued professedly on behalf of certain Apprentice Boys Clubs.
Whatever may have been the political character of the bodies locally responsible for arranging the Civil Rights march this was, for Londonderry, a quite novel project and Jj girl Londonderry County Borough to other objectives than the more usual sectarian or political demonstrations.
In addition, the police had no reason to think that the Civil Rights demonstrators would carry weapons or arms.